Khaira Disease Of Rice

What Is Khaira Disease?


Khaira disease is micro-nutritional(Zn) deficiency disease seen on rice characterized by the presence of dusty brown patches on leaves which ultimately undergo necrosis.



This is one the most common disease in rice. As it affects the leaf of plant-the rate of photosynthesis decreases which ultimately causes (25-30)% production loss.




The disease is called so because-During intial finding the farmers find resemblance in colour of affected rice and catechu same. As catechu is called Khair in India. The disease was named as khaira disease.





    In this blog we are going to discuss everything about   Khaira Disease Of Rice  in detail.-So-Read the article till end.



    History Of Khaira Disease In Rice


    Dr.Y.L. Nene first discovered the Khaira disease of Rice in Tarai of UP of India in the year 1966.



    Initially-Dr.Nene studied the symptoms in relation to microbes or any other pathogen but couldn't find any relation between them.



    Later-He found that the pH of soil is high i.e alkaline  where the prevalence of khaira  disease is more and pH of non-affected soil was less.



    He knew-Some nutritions availability is dependent on pH of soil. Then he started to analyse the soil in laboratory. Finally-He found that-There is deficiency of Zinc(Zn) in soil where khaira disease is seen.



    This is the history of Khaira Disease of rice.


    Causes of Khaira Disease


    Many people thought that Khaira disease is caused by some pathogen or micro-organisms.But- That is not true.



    🔹The main cause of Khaira disease in rice is deficiency of Zinc(Zn) in cultivated soil.Zinc is a essential micronutrient required to plants.



    🔹Khaira disease is seen mainly on calcarious soil. The reason for this is- Both Ca and Zn are absorbed from the same side of soil. When calcium becomes high-then the availability of zinc greatly reduces and start to show symptoms of khaira disease.




    🔹Sometime-The flooded condition of field for long time increases the pH of soil which increases the loss of zinc in the form of Zn(OH)2 and limits this nutrient.



    ✔️Note:-Many people confuses on Tip Burn disease and Khaira disease in rice. They are different. 


    Tip Burn disease in rice is caused different factors mainly by water lodging in field causing the lack of oxygen in root zone whereas khaira disease in rice is caused the deficiency of zinc.


    Khaira Disease Of Rice
    Disease Of Rice





    In Tip Burn Disease-Only tip of rice plant leaf go under necrosis while it doesn't affect the other part of rice plant but In Khaira disease-The whole leaf lamina turns brown and undergo necrosis.



    Symptoms Of khaira Disease


    There are many symptoms of khaira disease in rice. If these symptoms are identified at early stage-then khaira disease can be easily controlled minimizing our loss.


    Some symptoms are listed below:-


    🔹The symptoms of khaira disease is shown after (2-3) weeks of transplantation of rice.



    🔹The peculiar symptom is-Yellowing of leaf at start and dusty brown patches are seen on leaf of rice. Later-These dusty patches covers whole leaf lamina. These patches looks like rust in iron.



    🔹Chlorosis(Lack Of Chlorophyll) is seen in affected leaves especially on lower leaves. This is because Zinc is responsible for the formation of chlorophyll.



    🔹Stunted growth of plant. Rice cannot attain good height.



    🔹There is no proper development of roots.Sometimes-Roots of rice plant also turns brown and fibrous are totally destroyed.


    🔹
    The formation of ear(Grain Bearing Tip) is greatly reduced.




    Control/Treatment Of Khaira Disease


    The disease should be controlled as soon as the symptoms are seen to minimize our production loss. The control and treatement methods of Khaira disease are listed below:-


    🔹ZnSo4 should be applied to the nursery bed of rice before transplanting in main field.



    🔹During transplantation-ZnSo4 should be applied at the rate of (25-30)kg per hector of land.



    🔹Seed priming i.e  Dipping of seed on ZnO solution before sowing in field helps to reduce Zn deficiency.



    🔹As high pH reduces the availability of Zinc. We should give priority to use fertilizers which reduces pH of soil like-We can use ammonium sulphate instead of Urea for N.




    🔹Water logging should be avoided and there should be proper management of drainage in field.

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    This is whole information on Khaira Disease Of Rice.



    If you have any confusion-Ask in comments.



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